Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset--The much-used Barro-Lee data provide data on various measures of educational attainment in 5-year increments for 1950 onwards.
Current Population Survey--This is a joint project between the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau. The CPS is a monthly survey that collects basic socio-demographic information, along with various supplemental studies. Of special interest to those in education may be the School Enrollment Study Series. To access CPS data files, users can go through the Data Ferrett (see below). Alternately, they can go to the National Bureau of Economic Research's CPS site here or to the IPUMS CPS site here.
Data Ferrett--A joint project between the Bureau of Labor and the U.S. Census Bureau. Data Ferrett is ideal for extracting a relatively small number of variables from a dataset or creating your own crosstabs or frequencies.
EDStats - the World Bank Education Statistics Database--EDStats contains an extensive range of international data pertaining to education, both in tables and databases. The EdStats Query may be of particular interest because it allows users to query an extensive database of time-series data and also provides access to various other World Bank collections of data on educational attainment and expenditure. Bulk downloads of EdStats data are available at http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/ed-stats. EdStats is part of the Bank's Data Catalog.
General Social Survey (GSS)--The GSS measures public opinion in the United States on a wide variety of topics of interest to social scientists. The survey, which began in the early 1970's, provides a (nearly) annual perspective on American attitudes toward government, life, race, religion, and other social issues. The link here is to the GSS homepage within the National Opinion Research Center. Sites where researchers can extract and download specific variables of interest are listed here. The SDA Archive at Berkeley also holds GSS data from 1972 to 2010.
Global Education Database--The U.S. Agency for International Development's Global Education Database (GED) allows users to search for international education statistics. Users can search for specific variables and/or countries and save data in Excel files.
Henry A. Murray Research Center--The Murray Center contains numerous datasets in the social sciences. Data in the subjects of psychology, sociology and education are highly represented.
NAEP Data Explorer--The NAEP Data Explorer provides education-assessment data from the National Assessment of Education Progress and other assessment tests. Users can query individual NAEP databases and also create profiles and tables for states and selected school districts.
National Center for Education Statistics--The NCES is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data and statistics in the United States and in various other countries. For quick reference, researchers can access pre-made "Tables and Figures" at http://nces.ed.gov/quicktables/. Information about and access to the NCES' various data-collection programs are located at http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/. The NCES also produces some very useful annual reports, which are available at http://nces.ed.gov/annuals/.
National Center for Education Statistics International Data Explorer--The NCES International Data Explorer, which is part of the NCES' International Activities Program, provides access to data from various international programs that assess students' skills in literacy, mathematics, sciences, and other areas. The NCES provides additional information about international education-assessment programs at http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/international/assessments.asp. Click on a link to a given program to get more information about subject coverage, participating countries, and data access.
National Science Foundation Division of Science Resource Statistics (SRS)--This site contains a great deal of data concerning advanced education in the sciences. The SRS databases are accessible here. The appendices to the NSF's Science and Engineering Indicators publication available here and the compilation of "Detailed Statistical Tables" available here may also be of interest.
School Attendance Boundary Information System (SABINS)--SABINS, which is a project of the Minnesota Population Center, provides "aggregate census data and GIS-compatible boundary files for school attendance areas, or school catchment areas, for selected areas in the United States for the 2009-2010 school year."
Statistical Abstract of the United States--Electronic version of the popular resource. The Statistical Abstract contains a wealth of information on numerous socio-economic and demographic indicators for the US. Historical data tables taken from the Statistical Abstract are available here. There is also a CD version of the Statistical Abstract available in the Data Center.
UNESCO Institute for Statistics--The United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) provides, to quote the website, "[global] and internationally comparable statistics on education, science, technology, culture, and communication." Users can download tables directly into Microsoft Excel.
U.S. County and City Data Book (University of Virginia)--The 1988, 1994, and 2000 electronic editions are available here. These data books contain a substantial amount of information on a variety of state-, county-, and city-level indicators. More recent statistics are available from the Census Bureau.