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Data Resources and Support: Elections and Voting Behavior

Support for locating and working with datasets, statistical information, and geographic data.

Elections and Voting Behavior

American National Election Studies (ANES)--The ANES series is one of the premier sources for data on voting behavior and political attitudes in the post-WWII United States. Upon registering (which is free), users can download data and SAS/SPSS/Stata program files and documentation for any of the various NES studies. The SDA Archive at UC-Berkeley also allows users to access recent versions of the ANES and extract particular variables from them for those who have specific questions in which they are interested.

American National Election Studies ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior--The ANES Guide is an excellent source for data on trends in voting behavior for the US since World War II.

Budge, Wolendorp, and Keman Coalition Data--Data on governing coalitions in post-WWII Western Europe, up through 1995.

British Elections and Politics Home Page--Election results for the United Kingdom, up through 2005.

Adam Carr's Elections Archive--Excellent link for electoral results around the world, with a special section on Australia. Results are for the most recent elections and are typically broken down into regions or the equivalent electoral constituency.

Comparative Study of Electoral Systems--This site contains data and documentation for a cross-national collection of election studies. The CSES combines microdata on respondents with data at different levels of geography (i.e. data on respondents' electoral districts and on the political institutions of their countries) and focuses on themes such as how macro-level variables such as electoral systems affect political attitudes.

Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA)--The CLEA is a project hosted by the University of Michigan's Center for Political Studies and is "a repository of detailed results - including votes received by each candidate/party, total votes cast, number of eligible voters, and seat figures where available - at a constituency level for the lower house legislative elections that have been conducted around the world."

Constituency-Level Elections (CLE) Dataset--The CLE Dataset is a project undertaken by Professor Dawn Brancati at Washington University in St. Louis and is a compilation of district-level election results broken by down individual political parties. The data cover national elections and some sub-national elections as well.

CQ Voting and Elections Collection--The CQ Voting and Elections Collection is part of the CQ Electronic Library that is in Databases at Emory. It contains a variety of data on elections at the national and state levels.

Current Population Survey Voting and Registration Data--The Current Population Survey gathers data on voting and voter registration in November of congressional and presidential election years. This site provides aggregated tables from the CPS and links to CPS microdata.

Elections in Western Europe Since 1815--An excellent source of data for historical electoral results by constituency in most Western European countries. Also contains significant information on electoral reform, electoral laws, and political parties in each country. We also have a CD-ROM of this collection of datasets available in the EDC.

Election Resources on the Internet (Manuel Alvarez-Rivera)--Good resource for links to electoral data and analysis, organized by country.

Election Results Archive (ERA)--The ERA, which is hosted by SUNY-Binghamton's Center on Democratic Performance, contains results from legislative and presidential elections from 1974 onwards for countries that meet a minimum threshold of democratic governance.

Eurobarometers--The European Union has been conducting Eurobarometers surveys with the European public since the early 1970's. The surveys measure attitudes toward economic, political, and social issues within EU member-states. The Central Archive for Empirical Social Research is the primary archive for Eurobarometer survey data and also has a search engine for Eurobarometer codebooks and questionnaires that is very useful for identifying the topical contents of individual studies. The Data Center has an extensive collection of Eurobarometers, including studies conducted in Central and Eastern European countries.

European Election Database (EED)--The EED, which is hosted by Norwegian Social Science Data Services, "publishes regional election results according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), level 1 to 3" for a selection of 35 European countries for 1990 onwards. Data are available for parliamentary, presidential, and European Parliament elections.

European Election Studies (EES)--To quote the website, the EES Data "are about electoral participation and voting behaviour in European Parliament elections" as well as perceptions about the EU itself. Note that the site also provides a link to data from the Euromanifestos Project.

Federal Elections Project--The Federal Elections Project, hosted by American University, distributes precinct-level data on U.S. federal elections from 2000.

Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) Voter Turnout Website--The IDEA Voter Turnout Website contains region- and country-specific electoral data, including election results, voter turnout, electoral systems, and electoral quotas.

Lijphart Elections Archive--Holds numerous election results for most democracies. Researchers should note, however, that data is not always great for each country and can differ widely in terms of coverage, detail, and availability.

National Election Pool (NEP) 2004 Exit Polls--National Election Pool exit polls are available through the ICPSR, the Roper Center, and Emory's Electronic Data Center. The link above provides access to the (even more controversial) election results provided by the NEP for the 2004 election.

Parties and Elections in Europe--Parties and Elections in Europe provides election results for national elections and for sub-national elections for selected states, for most of the post-WWII period. The data cover both Western and Central/Eastern Europe.

Political Database of the Americas--Holds numerous election results from most North, Central and South American countries. Researchers should note, however, that data is not always great for each country and can differ widely in terms of coverage and detail.

Political Studies Association Election Resources--The Political Studies Association at the University of Newcastle has a collection of links to election-themed resources in its Politics Portal. Click on "Search by topic" at the left for access.

Political Transformation and the Electoral Process in Post-Communist Europe--Database at the University of Essex (UK) with substantial electoral and legislative data for most post-communist countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine).

The Record of American Democracy (ROAD), 1984-1990--The ROAD project, which was headed by Harvard Professor Gary King, collected data on election returns, political behavior, demographics, and boundaries at small levels of geography (e.g. precincts).

Roper Center for Public Opinion Research--As part of its archive of public-opinion data, the Roper Center has a large collection of national and state exit polls for elections and primaries back to the 1970's. Roper also provides presidential approval ratings for FDR onwards.

Voter News Service (VNS) 2000 Exit Polls--Voter News Service exit polls are available through the ICPSR, the Roper Center, and Emory's Electronic Data Center. The link above provides access to the (highly controversial) election results provided by the VNS for the 2000 election.

U.S. Federal Elections Commission (FEC)--The FEC monitors the funding of federal elections in the U.S. The site contains data files and reports on contributions for users to access and download.

U.S. House of Representatives Electoral Statistics--The Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives compiles and publishes results from congressional and presidential elections from 1920 onwards.

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