A great place to start: Emory's guide to Data Resources and Support is a collection of links to data sources and help for commonly used statistical packages (e.g. R, SAS, SPSS, Stata). Links to data sources are organized by subjects such as Health, Environment, Criminal Justice, Social Indicators, Census & Demography, and International Trade.
CDC The website for the CDC includes a section devoted to data and statistics at both the national and state levels. The CDC's A-Z topic index is also useful for locating quantitative information on particular topics. A variety of information is available on the site, but sometimes you have to dig and data is often accessible via links that might not sound as if they are directly related to your topic.
CDC Sortable Risk Factors and Health Indicators This interactive CDC database provides access to various indicators of health risk at the state level, with options to break the data down by demographic characteristics or to look at trends over time.
CDC Wonder is a portal to numerous studies concerning health-related topics such as AIDS/STDs, risk behaviors (the Behavioral Risk Surveillance System), mortality and natality statistics. There are several online data tools as well as a link to the SEER database.
NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics, a part of the CDC) The three links below are some of the more useful links on the NCHS site:
National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) is an on-going survey series focusing on matters of family history and reproductive history (e.g. marital history, childbirth, usage of contraceptives) as well as more general matters such as employment history and demographics. The latest wave of the NSFG is also available on CD-ROM in the Data Center. Older waves are also available via the Social Science Electronic Data Library and in harmonized form via the Integrated Fertility Survey Series.
Georgia Division of Public Health is an excellent source for public health data as it relates specifically to the state of Georgia.