ICPSR (Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research)
The ICPSR is one of the largest collections of quantitative data in the world. The archives contents cover a very wide range of topics, with household surveys, health conditions and health care, and public opinion being particularly strong points in the collection. Emory's local ICPSR representatives are Ms. Jennifer Doty and Dr. Robert O'Reilly. The ICPSR is also available via Databases at Emory. Please see this notice from the ICPSR on how to access the archive and its data when off-campus.
Council of European Social Science Data Archives (CESSDA)
CESSDA is a consortium of national data archives from various European countries. CESSDA's data catalogue offers a central point of access to the holdings of the individual archives. Please note that different archives will have different access policies and different practices for documentation and dissemination of data files to researchers from non-European countries. The UK Data Archive and GESIS (Leibniz-Institute for the Social Sciences) are both generally willing to allow non-European researchers access to datasets upon registration.
Harvard Dataverse Network (DVN)
Harvard's Dataverse Network is an eclectic collection of datasets and data collections, including replication datasets for articles on topics such as political competitiveness in post-war Latin America or the effect of IMF programs on government spending, ongoing research projects on topics such as manifestos of regional political parties and ideology scores of state legislators and perceptions of electoral integrity, organizations such as development NGOs, groups such as networks of economists at different universities, and replication archives for academic journals.
World Bank Data Catalog
As part of its Open Data Initative, the World Bank has opened up access to dozens of its data collections and compiled into a single data catalog. The holdings here range from larger databases covering multiple topics to more narrowly-focused collections associated with particular research projects.
"More and Beyond, and Fun!"
UVa's Research Data Services and Sciences has compiled a list of off-beat data collections with a pop-culture focus.