Henry A. Murray Research Archive
The Murry Archive at Harvard's Institute for Quantitative Social Science archives many datasets from the IQSS' collection. The Murray Archive's data holdings cover many topics, including education.
Higher Education Research Institute (HERI)
UCLA's Higher Education Research Institute conducts recurring surveys on college freshmen, college seniors, and faculty. Data from many of their surveys are available for researchers upon application.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
The NCES is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data and statistics in the United States and in various other countries. The NCES conducts or participates in various data-gathering programs, such as this collection of surveys pertaining to higher education and this collection of data for international comparisons. For quick reference, researchers should check out http://nces.ed.gov/quicktables/ and the Digest of Education Statistics.
National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen (NLSF)
The NLSF, which is housed at Princeton University's Office of Population Research, follows a cohort of college freshmen over time, with the intent of testing competing theories/explanations for underperformance of minorities in higher education. The data are available upon registration from the OPR.