Higher Education Research Institute (HERI)
UCLA's Higher Education Research Institute conducts recurring surveys on college freshmen, college seniors, and faculty. Data from many of their surveys are available for researchers upon application.
The IPUMS Project at the University of Minnesota is taking data from the National Science Foundation's surveys of college graduates, graduate students, and doctorates and harmonized the data for easier analysis and comparisons over time.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
The NCES is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data and statistics in the United States and in various other countries. The NCES conducts or participates in various data-gathering programs, such as this collection of surveys pertaining to higher education and this collection of data for international comparisons. For quick reference, researchers should check out http://nces.ed.gov/quicktables/ and the Digest of Education Statistics.
National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen (NLSF)
The NLSF, which is housed at Princeton University's Office of Population Research, follows a cohort of college freshmen over time, with the intent of testing competing theories/explanations for underperformance of minorities in higher education. The data are available upon registration from the OPR.
US Schools - Desegregation Court Cases and School Demographic Data
This project at Brown University "includes data for the period 1970-2010 about desegregation court cases, trends in racial composition and segregation of elementary schools, and additional information about poverty, teacher-student ratios, and performance on standardized state tests. For every U.S. school district, information on racial and ethnic composition of the elementary student population for available years, and summary indices of school segregation and disparities are posted."