British Petroleum Statistical Review of World Energy
The Statistical Review of World Energy is a very good source for international time-series data on energy production and consumption and includes a collection of downloadable data.
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CIDAC)
The CDIAC is an excellent source for comprehensive data on climate change and related matters. Users may be especially interested in Trends Online, which includes much historical data on CO2 emissions as well as historical data on average temperatures.
Center for Climate and Energy Solutions
The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions provides a very wide range of reports and analysis of climate change, from introductions to the topic to discussions of the economics and environmental impacts of global warming to policy reports covering the U.S. and other major countries.
Department of Energy Energy Information Administration (EIA)
The Energy Information Administration produces much data on energy-related carbon emissions from different sources of energy, both for the United States and internationally. In addition to its collection of emissions data, the EIA also has much international data on production, consumption, and prices of different sources of energy.
World Bank Climate Change Data
The World Bank provides "[data] from World Development Indicators and Climate Change Knowledge Portal on climate systems, exposure to climate impacts, resilience, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy use." A range of data are available here, from historial averages and trends of percipitation to interactive maps that allow you to estimate the effects of climate change on individual water basins. Be sure to see the other climate change data resources available via the Bank's Data Catalog.