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Global Health: Biosocial Model (ANT 338W)

Dr. Carol Worthman, Fall 2016

Citing Your Sources

The Emory Libraries Citing Your Sources Research Guide provides information about why to cite sources, how to avoid plagiarism, how to avoid common mistakes, and a list of style manuals. Anthropologists generally follow the American Anthropological Association Style (a modified Chicago style), the American Psychological Association Style (APA), or the American Journal of Physical Anthropology Style -- but check with your instructor or journal to find out which style you should use. 

You can also visit websites with basic guidelines on how to use common style formats. Some good websites include:

If you are using a citation manager (e.g. Endnote or Zotero), just select the appropriate output style. The citation manager should automatically format your citations and bibliography, but don't forget to check it!

Data citation is straightforward in most cases. The citation must include the title, author, date, version, and a persistent identifier (e.g. DOI, Uniform Resource Name, Handle System). Including the checksum or a Universal Numeric Fingerprint is also recommended (allows future researchers to verify data integrity). Refer to your style manual for guidelines on citation formatting.

For more information on data citation visit the ICPSR or DataCite pages.

APA Style Tips and Resources

APA Style Tools

  • The APA rules are vague for citing figures and tables. For help see this guide from the UC Canterbury Library.
  • For complete information on APA Style, see: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6 th ed.). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Located in the Reference Desk area at RefDesk BF76.7 .P83 2010.


Frequent issues with APA

How do you reference a government report with a corporate author?

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma:  A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). CDC recommendations for the amount of time persons with influenza-like illness should be away from others. Retrieved from

How do you reference a web page that lists no author?

When there is no author for a web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry:


New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21, 2001, from

Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.: ("New Child Vaccine," 2001).

Use the full title of the web page if it is short for the parenthetical citation.

(adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual , © 2010)

How do you cite website material that has no author, no year, and no page numbers?

Because the material does not include page numbers, you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation (from pp. 170-171 of the Publication Manual):

  • A paragraph number, if provided; alternatively, you could count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document.
  • An overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section.
  • An short title in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full.

Because there is no date and no author, your text citation would include the title (or short title) "n.d." for no date, and paragraph number.

(e.g., "Heuristic," n.d., para. 1). The entry in the reference list might look something like this:

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from

(adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual , © 2010)

How do you cite something that doesn't have a specific example in the APA Publication Manual?

In general, a reference should contain the author name, date of publication, title of the work, and publication data. When you cannot find the example reference you need in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, choose the example that is most like your source and follow that format Sometimes you will need to combine elements of more than one reference format.

For examples, see the APA Style blog's series of posts about creating a reference based on the basic building blocks.

(adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual , © 2010)


DOI (Digital Object Identifiers)

A digital object identifier (DOI) can be used to cite and link to electronic documents. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it to link permanently to electronic documents. APA requires you to include a DOI in your citation if the article you are citing has a DOI.

To resolve a DOI that you have (i.e. find the article that goes with a DOI), go to: and enter the DOI (beginning with its numbers -- not the "doi:" prefix) in the search box. You can also try a Google search for the DOI.

If the DOI is not provided on the article or in the database record, you may be able to find its DOI by using DOI Lookup.

Citation Software

Try using EndNote or Zotero software to organize your citations and instantly create properly formatted bibliographies. Emory has a site license for EndNote and you can obtain a free copy by downloading the software from Emory's Software Express site (Emory network ID required). Mendeley is another popular software option.

For help with EndNote or Zotero, visit the Library's Help Guides or sign up for one of the classes we offer throughout the semester.

Get to Know Creative Commons

From the Creative Commons website:

If you want to give people the right to share, use, and even build upon a work you’ve created, you should consider publishing it under a Creative Commons license. CC gives you flexibility (for example, you can choose to allow only non-commercial uses) and protects the people who use your work, so they don’t have to worry about copyright infringement, as long as they abide by the conditions you have specified.

If you’re looking for content that you can freely and legally use, there is a giant pool of CC-licensed creativity available to you. There are hundreds of millions of works — from songs and videos to scientific and academic material — available to the public for free and legal use under the terms of our copyright licenses, with more being contributed every day.

If you would like to see what kinds of companies and organizations are using Creative Commons licenses, visit our Who Uses CC? page.

If you would like to learn more about the different CC licenses, visit our licenses page.

For those creators wishing to opt out of copyright altogether, and to maximize the interoperability of data, Creative Commons also provides tools that allow work to be placed as squarely as possible in the public domain.


If you have additional questions about whether you can use particular content or about your own content, contact the Woodruff Library Scholarly Communications Office.

Confused about copyright?

The Scholarly Communications Office offers a variety of services to help you understand copyright issues, how to obtain permissions, your rights as an author, and other publication related issues. Check out their workshops, visit office hours, or contact them for a consulation. 

Writing Center

If you are writing a research paper and need help thinking through your topic or organizing your paper's content,  Emory's Writing Center provides thoughtful one-on-one attention and feedback at any stage of the writing process. 

Sessions with tutors are available by appointment or during walk-in hours.

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