The Economist Intelligence Unit provides quarterly reports on individual nations' political and economic conditions - including forecasts for future developments based on current trends.
The BBC offers guides to the politics, economics, culture, and history of a number of nations. Their records include country-specific audio and video clips from the BBC Archives.
The OECD iLibrary is the online library of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development featuring its books, papers, and statistics. While the organization's focus is on wealthier developed nations, the iLibrary also houses resources from the OECD Development Center.
The HDI is a summary measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development - including health, longevity, education, and standard of life (measured by gross national income per capita). You can view and download country profiles of these indicators at the UNDP website.
These UN country level data include economic and social indicators as well as information about the environment and trade profiles. This online information comes from the World Statistics Pocketbook - an comprehensive compilation of over 50 key statistical indicators, collected from over 20 international statistical sources.
The World Bank's Open Data page is a great place to start looking through World Bank datasets, projects, development indictors, and reports. This page also links out to the World Bank DataBank, an analysis and visualization tool that contains time series data on a variety of topics.